Agreement That Ended The First Phase Of Revolution

The Spanish people and the indigenous descendants of the precolonial nobility were part of the upper class, and they were subdivided into other classes: the peninsulas, the Creoles and the Principala. The peninsulas were people born in Spain, but who lived in the Philippines. The Creoles, or Criollo humans, were Spaniards born in the colonies. Custosia was a hereditary class of local Indians, descendants of precolonial datus, rajah and nobility, obtaining special rights and privileges such as positions within local government and the right to vote, although they are inferior to the peninsulas and islands of social reputation. Many members of the Philippine revolution belonged to the Principalia class, such as Jose Rizal. Although the peninsulas and Creoles enjoyed the same social power, since they both belonged to the upper class, the peninsulas considered themselves socially superior to the Creoles and indigenous princes. [41] In Cavite, Katipuneros under Mariano Alvarez, Bonifacio`s uncle by marriage, and Baldomero Aguinaldo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit) won early victories. The Magdalo Council commissioned Edilberto Evangelista, an engineer, to plan the defence and logistics of the revolution in Cavite. His first victory was at the Battle of Imus on September 1, 1896, when he defeated Spanish troops under General Ernesto Aguirre with the help of Jose Tagle. The revolutionaries of Cavite, especially Emilio Aguinaldo, gained prestige by defeating Spanish troops in “set pieces” battles, while other rebels such as Bonifacio and Llanera were involved in guerrilla warfare. Aguinaldo, speaking for the Magdalo Council of Government, published a manifesto in which he announced a provisional and revolutionary government after its first successes, despite the existence of the government of Bonifacion Katipunan. [65] The main influx of revolutionary ideas emerged in the early 19th century, when the Philippines was open to world trade. In 1809, the first English companies were established in Manila, followed in 1834 by a royal decree that officially opened the city to world trade.