Bilateral Agreement In 1993
The term “LAC” was legally recognized in the Sino-Indian agreements signed in 1993 and 1996. The 1996 agreement stipulates that no activity of either of them must cross the line of actual control.  However, Clause 6 of the 1993 Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Effective Control in the India-China Border Areas states that “both sides agree that references to the effective line of control in this Agreement do not affect their respective positions on the border issue.”  The English text of the Protocol, signed in New Delhi on 11 April 2005, can be found on the Bilateral/Multilateral Documents page of the Media Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of India (MEA). You can also find a copy and summary of the protocol in the UN Peacemakers Database and the pa-X Peace Agreement Database. The protocol aims to implement previous agreements and “agree on modalities for the implementation of confidence-building measures, including through procedures for the exchange of information on troop movements and the organization of biannual meetings on border issues. They also agreed to resolve through diplomatic channels any breach or clarification to be made. Srivastava recalled that in 1993, the two countries signed an agreement to maintain peace and tranquility along the Line of Effective Control in the border areas between India and China; agreement on confidence-building measures in the military field along the LAC in 1996; Protocol on modalities for the implementation of confidence-building measures in the military field along the LAC in 2005; agreement on the establishment in 2012 of a working mechanism for consultations and border coordination between India and China; and the Border Defence Cooperation Agreement in 2013. In the past four months, China has moved the LAC, as India understood after 1993, far into Indian territory. This ranges from 1.5 km in places to 4.5 km in other places. And as usual, China has offered a legal argument to justify its new positions on the ground. It says that the 1993 agreement, which created the LAC, was only a legal document signed by the two countries in order to maintain peace and tranquility and says nothing about the location of the border. Which, of course, is technically correct. i. Declaration of Principles of Cooperation between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of India (signed and entered into force on 15 October 1993); As the Ladakh crisis is still longer than initially anticipated, India`s hat-analogy analogy sums up India`s dilemma.